Work package is defined as a unit of work that is clearly distinguishable from other such work packages, has scheduled start and completion dates with interim milestones as applicable, has a relatively short time span subdivided to facilitate measurement of work performed, has an assigned budget, and is integrated with the schedules of related work packages. (BusinessDictionary.com, 2018)
All problems within agri-environmental projects are communication problems, even those that don't seem to be. Practical problems can be resolved by having:
> the correct information
> the right contacts to get advice
> open communication with an agro technology company
These are all kinds of communication.
What is communication?
Communication is a two-way exchange of information between participants, where all participants are able to interact, share and give feedback.
Different professional backgrounds:
Agri-environmental projects involve collaboration between stakeholders who come from different professions such as farmers, farmers-advisors, policy-makers, governmental officials and scientists.
Stakeholders from different professions have different professional backgrounds and professional cultures. Every profession has their own:
> Mind-set and attitude
> Ways of approaching a problem
> Professional working language
A professional working language is adapted specifically for use within that profession, to communicate with colleagues regarding work related topics.
Differences in the way we all work and communicate, often cause small problems between different professional groups, such as:
> Misconceptions about a stakeholder group
> General misunderstandings
> Lack of respect and trust
Small problems add up and can result in the following major communication challenges:
> Language barriers between different professions
> Poor relationships between stakeholders and other professions
> Language barriers and poor relationships between scientists and other stakeholders
Professional cultural differences plus an ingrained top-down mind-set can lead to:
> Traditional top-down roles that don’t suit bottom-up projects
> Problems relating to policy and legislation
What kind of structural organisation does your project have, or do you want your project to have?
Every organisation has a different definition for the terms bottom-up and top-down. The term bottom-up is a popular buzzword, and is often used incorrectly.
We looked at all the definitions, and the ways these structures are implemented, and came up with the optimal definitions.
Top-down project structure:
There is a management hierarchy in place in all projects, companies, organisations and professions. In any position there are usually several of these at play at once.
Here are some simplified examples of the 'chain-of-command' in top-down systems.
The Boss -> Management --> Employees
The EU --> Policy-makers --> Farmers
The Funding Committees --> The Scientific Community --> Researcher
Traditionally these are non-flexible hierarchies used for organising and managing a business, organisation or project and follow these steps:
1. Decisions are made at the top
2. Commands are sent down the hierarchy to those at operational level at the "bottom"
3. Operational level (bottom) implements commands
Top-down organisation is efficient, standardized and the traditional way to structure a project, but there are major downsides to having a rigid top-down system. Often individuals at the "top" do not understand:
1. how the operational level functions
2. the processes carried out by the operational level
3. the practical implications of the decisions they make
This leads to poor or ill-informed decisions which are inefficient and make the jobs of those working at the operational level harder.
Top-down systems are flawed by one-way communication, an order sent down the hierarchy with no opportunity for feedback.
Communication should always be a two-way cycle, all parties should participate.
The operational level have crucial knowledge which should be used when making decisions, in top-down systems this knowledge is wasted.
Bottom-up project structure:
Those working at the operational level have unique knowledge on:
> local conditions
> local and implementation challenges
> practical applications
This knowledge is crucial to making good decisions.
In bottom-up systems this knowledge is used define project aims and to make important decisions. In this way the most regionally, locally and practically suitable solutions are reached.
The same participants are involved, but different roles of each stakeholder are required.
The people best qualified to design an agri-environmental project are those who would end up implementing it.
1. You know your region, your neighbours and the local issues being faced on your farm best.
2. Agri-environmental projects designed and initiated by you will be more suitable to your specific situation.
3. An agri-environmental project designed by you is more likely to be successful, and both environmentally and economically beneficial.
4. An agri-environmental project initiated and driven by you is more likely to be accepted by the local community.
Remember top-down structure is the standard practise, this means everyone is used their traditional top-down roles and to flawed one-way communication. Thus it can be hard to set up healthy two-way communication, and for project partners to take on a new role.
More information on top-down and bottom-up structured projects can be found in the attached pdf 'Communication_in_bottom-up_Agri-environmental_projects'.
More information on Two-way Communication can be found below
Vision is an idea or mental image of something. View of the future. The ability to imagine how something could develop in the future, or the ideas that come from imagining in this way. (Cambridge Dictionary, 2019)
Die Leiter der Ämter und Städte sowie die Regionalmanager der beiden AktivRegionen aus dem Kreis Plön wurden für den 24.11.2017 zu einem Workshop eingeladen. Auf dem Workshop ging es darum, die Zuständigkeiten für Förderprogramme, die Beziehungen der Beteiligten untereinander in Bezug auf Fördermittel und einen Arbeitsprozess von der Projektidee bis zur Fördermittelakquise zu diskutieren.
In the Interreg project Benefit4Regions, nine case studies have been formed which can be viewed as Value Added Webs (VAWs). In this paper, we define VAWs, describe levels and resources in VAWs, the phases of VAWs as well as give recommendations to how to facilitate work in VAW's.
Trust can be defined as the firm belief in the reliability, truth or ability of someone or something. (Oxford Dictionary, (n.d.).
10 STEPS IN DEVELOPING OF MICROTURISM
Tourism is a vital growth industry for rural areas. There is a large untapped growth potential in the smaller destinations outside the major cities and here the microturism companies are crucial. The micro-tourism can help boost tourism outside the major destinations and make the area more attractive to tourists for longer or recurring stays.
Experience from the project shows that microturism lacks an overall framework for development. The following 10 recommendations are therefore an attempt to simplify a great deal of microturism to some concrete frameworks and steps for the development of microturism. In practice, the work must be organized to suit the individual micro-destination. The 10 steps must therefore be read as a checklist that can be used to plan future initiatives.
WHAT IS MICROTURISM?
Micro-tourism is supported by smaller tourism companies in smaller destinations outside the major cities. In the project Benefit4Regions, there is a focus on microturism outside the major cities based on experiences and services from networks of small, local companies and / or associations.
So in short: Micro-tourism is borne by micro-businesses at micro-rural destinations.
A project that is controlled, directed or instituted from the top level of organizational structure within the project. (JONES 2014: 4)
Territory can be defined as an area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state (Oxford dictionary, 2019).
Territorial cooperation, or a cooperation between territories, brings people together, helping to solve common problems, facilitating the sharing of ideas and assets and encouraging strategic work towards common goals. (European Commission, n.d.).